The U.S. Annexes Texas 1845

“Said State to be Formed” Fifteen years after Mexico had gained independence from Spain (Texas Mexican Territory) and  two months after Texans under Sam Houston’s  (1793—1863) had revenged Mexican General Santa Anna’s massacre at the San Antonio  mission (“Remember the Alamo”), Texas gained its independence from Mexico and was recognized as a republic by the … Continue reading

The Treaty of Guadalupe

 “The U. S. Engages to Pay….the Sum of $15 Million” Ulysses S. Grant (1822—1885), the 18th President, who was a second lieutenant in the Mexican War (1846—1848), described the war as “the most unjust” in American history.  Annexation of Texas by the United States in 1845 had inflamed relations with Mexico, which refused to negotiate … Continue reading

The Louisiana Purchase 1803

“A Strong Proof of…Friendship” It was the greatest real estate deal in all of history;  The Louisiana Purchase nearly doubled the size of the United States, and precluded British, English, and Russian influence in the west.   U. S. President Thomas Jefferson (1743—1826) had originally planned to buy only the Isle of Orleans, that is, … Continue reading

The Missouri Compromise 1820

“Such fugitive may be…reclaimed” In 1819, when there were 11 slave states and 11 free states, the territory of Missouri, acquired by the United States in the Louisiana Purchase (1803), applied for admission to the Union as a slave state.  This  would result in changing the balance of Senatorial voting in favor of slavery.  What … Continue reading

Lewis And Clark 1806

“An Ample Journal….Must Avoid Much Intelligence.” Until astronauts first walked on the Moon, in 1969, Americas most spectacular odyssey was the two-year Lewis and Clark expedition into the unexplored American northwest. With a secret Congressional grant of $2,500, the soldier, Meriwether Lewis (1774—1809), who had been President Thomas Jefferson’s private secretary for two years (he … Continue reading

The Physical And Spiritual Symbols of Christmas

Christmas, its meaning, symbols, adornments, gifts, activities, family involvements and most importantly its LOVE are not the same for everyone.  Just as no two snowflakes are identical.  No two people, couples, or families experience the self same feelings, emotions, and blessings arising from the celebration of what the world calls Christmas. To Read the Full … Continue reading

Adams-Onis Treaty: U.S. Title To The Floridas

1819 “Free exercise of their religion” Spanish explorers, thirsting for the legendary fountain of youth, scouted the Florida Peninsula as early as 1513 A.D.  Legal ownership of the region passed from Spain to Great Britain in 1763 A.D.  Twenty years later, Florida passed back to Spain under the Treaty of Paris.  By the 1810s, Spain … Continue reading

Vermont Adopts The U.S. Constitution 1791

“A New And Entire Member of The United States of America.” Article IV of the U.S. Constitution establishes exact procedures , but no hard and fast requirements, for creating new states as equal parts the Union with the original thirteen states—equal in power, dignity, and authority.  Admission to the Union is on a state-by-state basis: … Continue reading

The Declaration of Independence

A Separate Nation In early July, 1776, America was on the verge of independence from Great Britain, and revolutionary leader John Adams of Massachusetts looked forward with great anticipation of making it official.  While writing to his wife, Abigail, John Adams made an accurate prophesy about future commemorations of independence.  He said: “It will be celebrated … Continue reading