Appearance And Reality

Throughout its history, one of the great themes of philosophy has been the distinction between appearance and reality.  This distinction was central to the thought of the earliest philosophers, who were called the “Presocratics” because they all lived in the time before the Greek philosopher Socrates (469—399 B.C.). To Read Full Article, Download File: Appearance … Continue reading

The Origins of Native Americans

Americans of European descent generally think of Native Americans as the “original” inhabitants of the Americas, but, of course, they are also immigrants, albeit of much greater antiquity. Where they migrated from, and when, has been a topic of vigorous debate among anthropologists, geneticists, and linguists.  More agree that the majority of Native American populations—here when … Continue reading

The Black Death

Over a period of five years, from 1347 A.D to 1352 A.D., a horrific epidemic ravaged Europe, killing millions, devastating cities, causing wide-spread panic, and shaking social institutions to their foundations.  This natural holocaust—today recognized as the Bubonic Plague—was fearfully referred to as “the Black Death.” To Read the Full Article, Download File: The Black … Continue reading

Cloning

Cloning is nothing new, if by “cloning” we mean “producing genetically identical copies.”  Plants have been cloned for centuries by the low tech method of taking cuttings and grafting them into other stems or branches.  Frogs were cloned over 60 years ago by a process known as nuclear transplantation; the nucleus from a tadpole’s intestinal … Continue reading